I’ve heard several drugs mentioned as possible treatments for COVID-19. What are they and how do they work?
One investigational drug called remdesivir has been authorized by the FDA for emergency use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Remdesivir may be prescribed for people who are hospitalized with severe COVID-19. It’s given through a needle in the skin (intravenously).
Researchers are studying other potential treatments for COVID-19, including:
- Antiviral drugs. In addition to remdesivir, other antiviral drugs being tested include favipiravir and merimepodib. Studies have found that lopinavir and ritonavir aren’t effective.
- Dexamethasone. The corticosteroid dexamethasone is one type of anti-inflammatory drug being studied to treat or prevent organ dysfunction and lung injury from inflammation. A recent study found it reduced deaths by about 30% for people on ventilators and by about 20% for people who needed supplemental oxygen. The U.S. National Institutes of Health has recommended this drug for people hospitalized with COVID-19 who are on mechanical ventilators or need supplemental oxygen. Other corticosteroids, such as prednisone, methylprednisolone or hydrocortisone, may be used if dexamethasone isn’t available. However, their effectiveness isn’t yet known. Dexamethasone and other corticosteroids may be harmful if given for less severe COVID-19 infection.
- Anti-inflammatory therapy. Researchers study many anti-inflammatory drugs to treat or prevent dysfunction of several organs and lung injury from infection-associated inflammation.
- Immune-based therapy. Researchers are studying the use of a type of immune-based therapy called convalescent plasma. Convalescent plasma is blood donated by people who’ve recovered from COVID-19. It is used to treat people who are seriously ill with the disease.
- Drugs being studied that have uncertain effectiveness. Researchers are studying amlodipine, ivermectin, losartan and famotidine. But it is not yet known how effective these drugs may be in treating or preventing COVID-19.
- Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. These malaria drugs were authorized for emergency use by the FDA during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the FDA withdrew that authorization when data analysis showed that the drugs are unlikely to be effective. They can also cause serious heart problems.
- Drugs to prevent COVID-19. Researchers are studying drugs to prevent COVID-19 before and after exposure to the virus.
It’s not known if any of these will prove to be effective against COVID-19. It’s critical to complete medical studies to determine whether any of these medications are effective against COVID-19.
Don’t try these medications without a prescription and your health care provider’s approval, even if you’ve heard that they may have promise. These drugs can have serious side effects. They’re reserved for people who are seriously ill and under a health care provider’s care.
Information in this post was accurate at the time of its posting. Due to the fluid nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientific understanding, along with guidelines and recommendations, may have changed since the original publication date.
Check the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website for additional updates on COVID-19. For more information and all your COVID-19 coverage, go to the Mayo Clinic News Network and mayoclinic.org.